76 years ago, at house number 57 Ly Thuong Kiet (now number 71 Ly Thuong Kiet, Thang Loi ward, Buon Ma Thuot city) many important meetings of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee took place to prepare sue for the uprising to seize power in Dak Lak.
Since placing the yoke on the Central Highlands, the French colonialists have implemented many policies to divide the ethnic groups, they have tried their best to exploit economically, exhaustively exploit natural resources, and harshly tax regimes. harsh.
In parallel with the expansion of the sphere of influence, conquest, invasion of land, exploitation of resources, the establishment of plantations was also promoted; fertile lands were deprived, large plantations appeared one after another: CHPI (Compagnie des Hauts Plateaux Indochinois); CADA (Compagnie Agrecole D'Asie); Societe Indochinois… By establishing plantations, the French colonialists quickly impoverished workers, they were turned into "coolies" in the plantations.
Contrary to the enemy's divisive plots, the Kinh - Thuong solidarity has always remained steadfast. In 1925, Lac Giao village was established. From 1930 to 1945, some families in Lac Giao village often secretly contacted political prisoners in the Buon Ma Thuot exile house, sometimes providing food and medicine, sometimes providing revolutionary press materials. . There were many times when political prisoners in the Exile were forced to do hard labor by the enemy, when passing through Lac Giao village, the people here brought fruit cakes and medicine to the prisoners with a heart full of respect. From that relationship, Lac Giao village became a revolutionary base, concealing and protecting our cadres during the arduous years of operation and building the revolutionary movement.
In 1930, the Buon Ma Thuot exile house (Penitencier de Ban Me Thuot) was started to be built under the orders of the Ambassador of the Middle States to exile, imprison and annihilate revolutionary activists. Here, they enforce a very harsh prison regime: political prisoners are brutally mistreated and beaten, have to endure hard labor, are often sent to work at construction sites, construction sites, etc. building offices, barracks, and roads (such as building national highways 14 and 21) to serve the purpose of French colonial rule. Here, prisoners have to work in extremely austere and harsh conditions. They took advantage of the "sacred forest of poisonous water" to annihilate, gradually killing and destroying the will and body of the revolutionaries. But it was also in this place, with a strong will, not yielding to all the tricks of the enemy, the colonial exile only imprisoned the body, but not the will and spirit of the communists. produce. From Buon Ma Thuot exile, a core organization or the first Party cell was born in Dak Lak, sowing seeds of revolution for Buon Ma Thuot and for Dak Lak. Many revolutionary bases were built in towns and plantations.
From 1944, through Comrade Nguyen Hoa - the first person of the Luc Highway, he was assigned by comrades in the Buon Ma Thuot exile house to contact the family of Mr. Dau Viet Chuc to build a revolutionary base.
Mr. Dau Viet Chuc is a progressive civil servant in Buon Ma Thuot Town. During the French colonial period, he worked at the Department of Luc Lo Vinh because he was against the West, so he was disciplined and had to be suspended for three years. In 1939, he was reinstated and sent to work in Buon Ma Thuot. In 1943, he built a three-room house at 57 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, on an area of more than 500m2 in the motif of a traditional house in the North with a sloping roof covered with fish scale tiles. The house is about 10m wide, 18m long, 4m high (from the roof top), with 3 main doors and 3 windows. The interior space is divided into 3 compartments, including a main space and 2 sub spaces located on either side of the main space, in which, the main space is used to receive guests and worship, and 2 auxiliary spaces are used to live and serve the guests. daily activities, behind is a large yard, surrounded by built walls.
House number 57 Ly Thuong Kiet became the secret communication base of the Viet Minh at that time in Dak Lak in particular and the whole central region in general, between political prisoners exiled from the central provinces and outside establishments.
On March 9, 1945, the Japanese coup d'etat France over Indochina, in Buon Ma Thuot, the French colonial government surrendered unconditionally to the Japanese fascists. Taking advantage of the situation that the French government was disintegrating and the government of Japan was not stable, the comrades in the leadership of the exile decided to approve the revolutionary facilities that had been built in the towns and plantations. and some villages, launched many struggles to expose the Japanese tricks, isolate the henchmen. On the other hand, continue to build the base, combining the struggle of the masses outside (who has been enlightened by the political prisoners in the Buon Ma Thuot exile house) with the struggle of the comrades in detention. at the Buon Ma Thuot Exile to free political prisoners. House No. 57 Ly Thuong Kiet became the place to receive and nurture political comrades such as: Comrade Nguyen Trong Ba, former Provincial Party Member; Comrade Nguyen Loi, former Party Committee; Comrade Ngo Ham, judge of the Supreme People's Court and some other comrades. The house became the basis for preparing the general uprising of Dak Lak province.
At the beginning of April 1945, the struggle for the release of political prisoners broke out on a large scale, mass groups in plantations, villages and towns flocked to the House of Exile, demanding the release of prisoners and their return. a relative; patriotic civil servants and intellectuals flocked to the house of Provincial Governor Nguyen Sy Tuc to both persuade and fight to raise their petitions to demand the implementation of the "Government's" orders. Meanwhile, the political prisoners have enlisted to mobilize a number of prison guards while isolating those who stubbornly struggled to open the prison door. Under the pressure of a strong and coordinated struggle between the soldiers in the prison and the mass movement outside, the Japanese were forced to release the revolutionary soldiers being held in the Buon Ma Thuot Exile. Political prisoners were liberated, compatriots everywhere in the town, plantations and villages held receptions with close love and affection.
After being released from prison, Comrade Phan Kiem, Comrade Nguyen Trong Ba secretly returned to Buon Ma Thuot to prepare for the uprising. On the night of August 13, 1945, the National Uprising Committee issued military order No. 1, ordering the general uprising. In Buon Ma Thuot, on August 14, 1945, the Provisional Leadership Board convened a conference to assess the situation and determine that the time for the uprising had come, decided to assign more propagandists to continue developing the base. In the security guards, send people to ask for more reinforcements and coordinate actions...
On August 17, 1945, after receiving news that Van Gia (Van Ninh - Khanh Hoa) had won the uprising, followed by Ninh Hoa, Dak Lak Province decided to conduct an uprising at CADA plantation. That same evening, on August 17, on the occasion of the workers' cultural festival, the Viet Minh Committee presented itself to all workers.
On the morning of August 19, 1945, Comrade Huynh Ba Van and Comrade Dao Xuan Quy, Khanh Hoa cadres, reinforced Dak Lak to the newly liberated CADA, which encouraged uprisings to seize power in neighboring areas. near. On that day alone, a revolutionary government was established in a series of plantations and villages from kilometer 3, 21st street (today's 26th street) and along 8th street (today's Phan Chu Trinh) to Me Val. .
On the evening of August 19, 1945, at House No. 57 Ly Thuong Kiet, Buon Ma Thuot town, the provisional leadership of the province convened an emergency meeting to hear the situation in the neighboring provinces and decide the time. seize power at the provincial level. Attending the Conference were a large number of Viet Minh representatives from the towns, plantations and some villages. The meeting commented and assessed the situation as follows:
- On the enemy's side, although the force gathered enough for one regiment, but since the Emperor announced his unconditional surrender, they only huddled in the garrison waiting for the order to withdraw. The puppet authorities of the province have no political base and only operate in moderation. Many organizations created by Japan are disintegrating, typically youth organizations, most of which have leaned towards the revolution.
- On our side, the struggle movement of CADA plantation workers and a series of plantations and villages along Route 26 created a great excitement among the townspeople and had a good influence on promoting the revolutionary movement. of the province to progress further. In the communes of Lac Giao, Lac Sa and some villages around the town, the masses actively sought out Viet Minh cadres to propose to rob the government.
On the basis of the growing position and power of the revolution while that of the enemy was weakening, the Conference came to the following conclusion:
- The time is ripe, it is necessary to quickly cultivate the core force to lead the General Uprising.
- The main objective of the general uprising was to seize power in Buon Ma Thuot town. Therefore, urgently grasp the core base among civil servants, students, ethnic intellectuals and security guards to be ready to coordinate with the townspeople.
- Cleverly isolating Japan, using mass pressure to crush the enemy's will to resist.
- Electing the leadership of the uprising and assigning them to be in charge of the public transport, agricultural, military, and auxiliary activities. The conference decided to wait for the comrades sent to contact and ask for reinforcements to return to conduct a general uprising to seize power in the province.
When the Conference was about to end, Comrade Phan Quoc Luong - a Viet Minh establishment in the inner city informed that the puppet authorities of the province were mobilizing the masses to go to a meeting to "salute the flag and hexagrams" and announce the government reform. on August 20, 1945 at the town stadium. Faced with that situation, the Conference came to a historic strategic decision: Seize the opportunity to break the flag salute to defeat the enemy's supremacy, demonstrate the Viet Minh's forces, and mobilize the masses to prepare uprising to seize power in the town.
The meeting also elected the Dak Lak Provincial Uprising Committee including comrades Phan Kiem (head), Pham Sy Vinh (deputy committee) and members Nguyen Trong Ba, Huynh Ba Van, Y Bih Ale O, Thai Xuan Dong, Y Ngong Nie Kdam. Viet Minh cadres in plantations and villages were promptly mobilized and directly controlled self-defense organizations operating in the rally. Self-defense units at CADA plantation, Lac Giao commune, Lac Sa were assigned a team with weapons to strengthen protection of the Uprising Committee delegation.
As planned, on the morning of August 20, 1945, at the town stadium in the full presence of the Japanese henchman government, the Uprising Committee delegation debuted and announced: "Soldier units are safe and secure. the people had followed the Viet Minh front to make revolution. The government of Dak Lak belongs to the people, so today is not our flag-raising day, people please disperse, wait for orders from our superiors to have an official meeting."
The whole stadium cheered with the slogans: "Hooray for the revolution", "Hooray for Viet Minh", "Down with the Japanese fascists, "Down with Tran Trong Kim's government". The hexagram flag has not been raised, but the red flag with yellow star has appeared in the hands of some people who are good people arranged by us. The puppet government could not cope, the meeting was dissolved. Following the instructions of the self-defense teams, the compatriots went straight to the Buon Ma Thuot Exile House to break the prison and liberate those detained here.
On the morning of August 22, 1945, the provisional leadership of the province held an expanded conference to hear and evaluate the situation of the mass movement in the past few days, especially the results of breaking the enemy's flag-raising ceremony. This is a strategic decision, as a premise for the ripe opportunity for uprising. The conference came to a decision to revolt to seize power in the town on August 22, 1945, to establish the Provisional Revolutionary People's Committee, consisting of comrades: Chairman: Pham Sy Vinh; Vice President: Y Blǒ; Secretariat members: Nguyen Trong Ba, Y Nue, Vo To; Propaganda Commissioner: Y Ngong Nie Kdam, Nguyen Duc Lang; Military Commissioners: Phan Kiem, Y Bih Aéo; Economic Commissioner: Huynh Ba Van,…
When the French colonialists returned to invade Dak Lak, House No. 57 Ly Thuong Kiet was again chosen by the Provincial Party Committee and the Provincial Provisional Revolutionary People's Committee as the headquarters to command the counterattack against the enemy. After the French colonialists recaptured Buon Ma Thuot, they hunted and arrested revolutionary activists. Thanks to the basement of house number 57 Ly Thuong Kiet, many leaders were saved such as: Bui San, Nguyen Trong Ba, Phan Kiem, Tong Dinh Phuong, Pham Sy Vinh, Huynh Ba Van, Y Ngong, Nguyen Loi... was working here at the time.
Thus, the headquarters of Dak Lak Provincial Uprising Committee 1945 - House No. 57 (now 71) Ly Thuong Kiet, Thang Loi Ward, Buon Ma Thuot City, from an ordinary house, became one of the establishments. The secret revolution was located in the center of Buon Ma Thuot town during the years of resistance against the French colonialists, which was not easy given the conditions and context at that time in Dak Lak. This has proved the strategic line of our Party: There is no place to firmly defend the people like - "It is easy a hundred times without the people, but with ten thousand times of difficulties, the people will do it".
It was at this house that many important meetings of the Provisional Revolutionary People's Committee of Dak Lak Province took place to prepare conditions for the August 1945 revolutionary uprising of the province. In particular, on the evening of August 19, 1945, when the position and force of the revolution in the whole country was developing strongly, at the revolutionary base of House No. 57 Ly Thuong Kiet (currently No. 71 Ly Thuong Kiet) was The provincial interim leadership chose to convene an emergency conference to make historic strategic decisions - to mobilize the masses to prepare to seize power in the town. This is a creative and daring decision, taking advantage of the unexpected factor to create a premise for the victory of the uprising to seize power in Dak Lak in particular and contribute a successful link in the August 1945 revolution of Vietnam. country in general.
The headquarters of the Dak Lak Provincial Uprising Committee in 1945 became a place to hide and nurture Party cadres - revolutionary seeds, contributing to the shining of revolutionary heroism, demonstrating the People's war line of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Our Party can creatively apply in all conditions and circumstances to form the "party will of the people" to contribute to the success of the revolution. The relic of the Dak Lak Provincial Uprising Committee in 1945 is worthy of the name of a place to commemorate important historical events of the Dak Lak revolution in particular and the whole country in general.